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miércoles, 20 de julio de 2011

Bolivar at Bolivar Hall. 19th century engravings and lithographs.

Following Latin America’s independence from colonial rule, artists who had once created only colonial and religious art became interested in depicting the patriotic heroes and leaders of the revolution.
As photography had not been invented in Bolívar's lifetime, there is no photographic image to reflect his likeness.  However, Bolivar was frequently portrayed in stone and paint, sometimes sketched from life but often copied after prints or earlier paintings. This imagery, the Bolivarian iconography, has gone on to play an important historical role, both expressing a sense of the identity of the man who liberated Latin America and also helping to consolidate the national identity of the newly liberated republics. 
According to Alfredo Boulton (1908–1995), the celebrated Venezuelan art critic and cultural historian, the Bolivarian iconography is rooted in just six portrait artists M. N. Bate, José Gil de Castro, the anonymous portrait of 1825, François Desire Roulin, José María Espinosa and Antonio Meucci.
Of these six artists, four are represented in the present collection: Roulin, Meucci, Bate and Gil de Castro.  The works of these four artists form part of the private collection of the former Venezuelan diplomat Juan José Perdomo Boza.  
It is with great pleasure that these works of art are exhibited for the first time at Bolivar Hall in London, the historical site where the revolutionaries Simon Bolivar, Francisco De Miranda and Andres Bello met to plan the liberation of Latin America.
The presence and prominence of the Bolivarian iconography illustrates the enduring importance of Bolivar’s spirit and legacy both in Latin America today.

BOLIVAR AT
BOLIVAR HALL
19th Century engravings and lithographs
Bolivar Hall
56 Grafton Way, London W1T 5DL
July 2011

 

This booklet was printed in Caracas, on June, 2011
in [the press]
[Number] copies.
Translation: Nain Morillo and Cheryl Gallagher.
DESIGN: Juan José Perdomo Boza and Nelci Marin.
COVER IMAGE: BOLIVAR. EngD. By J. A. O'Neill. New York. 1853.


BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS and LITHOGRAPHS
The portraits of Bolivar shown here belong to my collection. I acquired them
during my time in London and after my return to Venezuela in early 2010.
This material can be classified in terms of the varying representations of
the Liberator captured by the artists who drew or painted him from life. This
is why, according to the criteria of Alfredo Boulton, the Bolivarian iconography
is rooted in just six portrait artists M. N. Bate, José Gil de Castro,
the anonymous portrait of 1825, François Desire Roulin, José María Espinosa
and Antonio Meucci. Of these six, I have managed to acquire a number
of works by engravers and lithographers based on the physical features captured
by four of those artists: Roulin, Meucci, Bate and Gil de Castro.
The Roulin Group, perhaps the most important due to its continuing
influence on the Bolivarian iconography, commences with a drawing
by the artist dated the 15th of February 1828. This work of art formed the
basis for Tavernier’s drawing which in turn was used by Thierry Frère to
create the Liberator’s profile for the lithograph that appears on the frontispiece
of the work of Rafael María Baralt and Diaz, edited in 1841 in France.
Tavernier’s drawing was used also by the French sculptor and medallist
David D'Angers to create his famous 1832 portrait which was then cast into
a bronze medallion. This same picture was also used by Albert Désiré Barre,
engraver of the coin currently in circulation in Venezuela.
The Meucci Group has also had a great influence due to its accurate
representation of the facial features of the Liberator. From this group
we have two engravings by Gregoire and Ligny Freres that were made from
a drawing by Antoine Maurin in 1833. Maurin copied the facial features
from Meucci’s portrait painted from life in Cartagena in 1830, changing the
position of the bust.
From the Bate Group we have two different affiliations: the Kepper
affiliation and the Walton affiliation. These subdivisions are based on the
clear similarity between the images reproduced on loose canvases and in
the illustrations of books published throughout the nineteenth century. The
Walton affiliation of the Bate group is the largest and also forms the basis
for the Kepper affiliation. All these portraits originated from a drawing that
was owned by the British publisher William Walton, the first being the
portrait painted by M. N. Bate on the 1st of February 1819 in London. Although
the Kepper affiliation comes directly from Bate, it is “different and
markedly developed” with a strong French influence.
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
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19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
4
The Gil de Castro Group has exercised the most influence in the
nineteenth century. This artist painted a portrait of the Liberator in a very
napoleonic pose. The engraver Gottschick used the facial features captured
in the portraits by José Gil de Castro despite these portraits being based on
a drawing by Lopez in Lima.
Finally, there is a group that has no affiliation or allegorical theme.
This group includes engravings and lithographs; both portraits of the
Liberator and paintings of scenes that represent him but bear no resemblance
to his physical features.
Juan José Perdomo Boza.
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ROULIN GROUP
JOSEPH PIERRE TAVERNIER AFFILIATION
DAVID D'ANGERS AFFILIATION
5
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
François Désiré Roulin. Simón Bolívar. Pen on paper Spanish floret. 1828.
0.20 x 0.14. "General Bolivar, desiné d´aprés nature á Bogotá. | 15 Fevrier
1828". John Boulton Foundation Collection.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 5
J. A. O 'Neill.
Simón Bolívar.
1853.
New York.
Engraving.
Sheet size 23.9 x 15.2 cm.
Image 14.6 x 8 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
EL LIBERTADOR BOLIVAR
(Copy of David’s medallion.)
1890.
Paris.
Lithography.
Sheet size 23.9 x 15.7 cm.
Image 16.6 x 14 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
6
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
"BOLIVAR | EngD. By J. A. O'Neill".
It is possible that O'Neill based the profile of Bolivar’s face on the Pierre
Joseph Tavernier portrait, published in the 1841 book by Rafael María Baralt
(see the book exhibited), adding Bolivar’s signature. It is also possible,
although unlikely, that O'Neill used the facial features from Desire Roulin’s
drawing from the 15th of February in Bogotá in 1828, who did use Tavernier’s
work. The O'Neill engraving was inserted into the book: Proclamations
of Simon Bolivar, Liberator of Colombia. New York. D. Appleton and
Company, 443 and 445 Broadway, S. Hallet Press, MDCCCLIII (1853), 73
pgs. This same publishing house published two editions of the book by
Ramón Páez: Descriptive geography of the world, for use in Spanish American
schools in 1858 and 1886.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 6
"Simón Bolívar. | I left the leadership | when I realised | that you were mistrustful|
of my generosity | (Last proclamation) | David. 1832". Inserted into
Volume III, Engraving. XVII of the History of San Martin of Bartolomé
Mitre, published in Paris in 1890. |The French sculptor and medallist David
d'Angers drew this portrait in 1832 based on the famous portrait of Bolivar
by Roulin in Bogotá in 1828 which was then cast into a bronze medallion.
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
7
Flores, Adolfo. CHRONOLOGICAL STUDY
| OF | LEADERS OF THE AMERICAS
| FROM | INDEPENDENCE | UP TO THIS YEAR
| BY | ADOLFO FLORES | 1887. | BOGOTÁ,
PRINTING BY FERNANDO PONTON. 1888. 355 pgs.
On pages two and three, this book contains a reproduction of the drawing
“the Liberator” by Roulin in 1828. Roulin’s drawing has had a great influence
on Bolivarian iconography as it has served as a prototype for many
other images including those of Tavernier and the French lithographer Coindre,
the medallion by David d'Angers and even the facial profile by Albert
Désiré Barre, engraver of the coin currently in circulation in Venezuela. In
1827, a year before drawing this portrait, Roulin provided the following
description of the face of the Liberator: "He had a head of regular volume,
beautifully shaped, depressed at the temples and prominent at the fore.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 7
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
8
The forehead was large and extended over a third of the face, the oval was
long, angular and sharp at the chin and cheekbones. The Liberator was almost
always clean shaven, whether as a matter of course or because he
didn’t have a generous beard. He had curly hair and always had a strand
curled over his forehead, with long hair at the temples, combed forward [...]
The Liberator had an markedly Basque and Greek profile, mainly from the
shape of his face, the smallness of the mouth, the breadth of the forehead
and the straightness of the finely delineated nose [...] The eyebrows were
thick and well arched[...] The sockets of his eyes were deep and his eyes
were large, black and shone brightly with an electric gleam and a penetrating
gaze". In the first issue of the Illustrated Journal of Bogotá Year I (1881-
1882), the engraver Antonio Rodríguez reproduced this portrait with a
description of Roulin’s portrait, "He dresses like an ordinary citizen with
no military emblems on either his shoulders or chest. His brow is furrowed
with deep lines; his eagle eyes reveal a profound meditation that can also
be discerned in the languor of his lips, his hair falls without artifice about
his temples and forehead. The painter’s brush could not give colour to his
face, but this was during that fateful time (1828) in which he had left in the
soles of the camps. His whole look reveals the state of a tormented soul,
from which all hope has fled, the redeeming projects, the pleasant illusions
of the good, leaving a sad air of melancholy surrounding him".
Edition, 1841. Edition, 1887.
Rafael María Baralt, (1810-1860) and Ramon and Diaz.
"SUMMARY | OF THE | HISTORY OF VENEZUELA
| FROM THE YEAR 1797 TO 1830. | BY | RAFAEL MARÍA BARALT
AND RAMON DIAZ. | AT THE END THERE IS A BRIEF
HISTORICAL OUTLINE COMPRISING | THE YEARS 1831 TO 1837. |
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9
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
Perhaps the moment in which the actors of a revolution are nearing
the end of their lives is the most appropriate moment to write their story because
their testimony can be taken without participating in their passions. |
M. A. Thiers, History of the French Revolution. (Two Volumes) |
VOLUME ONE. | PARIS | PRINTING H. FOURNIER AND COMPI, |
SAINT-BENOIT STREET, No. 7. | 1841. 398 pgs. VOLUME 2. 369 pgs.
[Contains 39 portraits engraved in bronze inserted between the two volumes].
A lithograph by Thierry Frères, based on a drawing by T. Tavernier of Simon
Bolivar, is in the frontispiece of the second volume cover. There is an 1887
edition of this work, edited in Curaçao by the A. Betancourt and sons publishing
house, which contains all the engravings from the 1841 edition
where all the engravings published in 1841 are copied, with the exception
that it is in the third volume where the portrait of the Liberator is placed
(see the volume shown).
Rojas, José María, 1828-1907. SIMÓN | BOLÍVAR
| BY | THE MARQUIS DE ROJAS | FOR THE SPANISH ROYAL ACADEMY |
PUBLIC EDUCATION OFFICIAL IN FRANCE |
[Contains the oval stamp of the SPANISH-COLOMBIAN AGENCY.
PRECIADO AND MORA BOOKSHOP. PANAMA SUBSCRIPTIONS
CENTRE.]. PARIS | GARNIER BROTHERS BOOKSHOP| 6,
DES SAINTS-PERES STREET 6 | 1883. CORBEIL. - RENAUDET PRINTING.
| Viii, 352 pgs.
BOLIVAR | DAVID | 1832. On the frontispiece of the cover there is a picture
of the bust of David d'Angers’s medal.
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19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
10
MEUCCI GROUP
MAURIN AFFILIATION
Antonio Meucci. Simón Bolívar. Miniature on ivory. 1830. 0.102 x 0.087.
"A. Meucci, pinxit year 1830". John Boulton Foundation Collection.
Ireres Ligny.
Simón Bolívar.
Circa 1835.
Paris.
Lithography.
Sheet size 36.1 x 27.1 cm.
Image 15.3 x 11 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Lithograph by Ligny Freres from a drawing by Antoine Maurin in 1833.
Very similar to a lithograph belonging to the John Boulton Fundation:
"Union, union, or the anarchy will devour you | Bolivar before his death |
"BOLIVAR | Paris chez Chaillou, editeur, 21 Quai Voltaire,
| No. 74. | Lith. Ligny Ireres r. Salem an Comte, 10. "
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BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
11
"BOLIVAR. | A. Maurin 1833. | Paris chez Editeur Rosselin 21
Quai Voltaire, No. 74. Lith. Gregoire et Deneux, 15, rue de l'abbaye".
Gregoire lithograph from a drawing by Antoine Maurin in 1833.
Gregoire.
Simón Bolívar.
Circa 1835.
Paris.
Lithography.
Sheet size 25.6 x 16.7 cm.
Picture 17 x 14 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Quesnet's. | Lith. Freres". It is evident that Antoine Maurin copied the facial
features of the portrait painted from life by Antonio Meucci in Cartagena in
1830 changing the position of the bust. The Liberator sent one of the
miniatures to his cousin Fanny du Villars in August of same year 1830. As
reported by Belford Hinton Wilson, Meucci made a total of four thumbnails,
which were donated by the Liberator to his friends. (See: Catalogue of the
Bolivarian Collection of the John Boulton Foundation. Bicentenary Year of
the Birth of the Liberator Simon Bolivar, pg. 25.) We can assume that the
lithograph made by Ligny Freres was made in France in 1833 or in the
following years. It is identical to the lithograph by Gregoire (see table
below). John Carter Brown University has another copy of this lithograph
in its collection, but the lithographer is Lemercier.
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BATE GROUP
KEPPER AFFILIATION
Kepper. Simón Bolívar. Lithography. 0.406 x 0.273. s / f. "Bolivar | Dessiné
d'apres nature à Bogota | Par Kepper. | Lithographique of Senefelder
Imprimerie, à Paris, chez Chaillou et Potrelle. (Signed) Gilbert ft". John
Boulton Foundation Collection."
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
12
Brodtmann, J.
Simón Bolívar.
Circa 1826.
Paris
Lithography.
Sheet size 34.3 x 25 cm.
Picture 24 x 21 cm.
Frame 60 x 45 cm.
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13
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
"Bolivar | Lith, and J. Brodtmann"
Bust with a cloak from head to toe, looking to the left. Almost identical to
a lithograph from the John Boulton Fundation collection by Kepper. "Bolivar
| Dessiné d'après nature à Bogota | Par Kepper. | Lithographique of Senefelder
Imprimerie, à Paris, chez Chaillou et Potrelle. (Signed) Gilbert ft.. "It
is a portrait of doubtful authenticity, although legend has it that the lithograph
that was "drawn from life in Bogotá". The image appears signed
"Gilbert ft". in the lithograph meaning" Gilbert made or did". It is very likely
he produced the lithography. It is possible that the "idea" came from Kepper,
even though it must be ruled out that he worked on the subject in Bogotá.
Kepper used the facial features shown in Bate, changing the position of the
bust, and wrapping it in a heavy military style cape that is worn tilted to one
side. This image had quite an impact in Ecuador". (Ibid. pg. 24)
This lithograph appears listed in BAER, JOSE co. AMERICAN | Catalogue
No. 600 | Including rare and precious books, manuscripts and
engravings | from the collections of | Emperor Maximilian of Mexico and |
Charles Et. Brasseur de Bour The Library of Edward Salomon | Late
Governor of the State of | Wisconsin and Other important collections |
Columbus and the Indians. Woodcut of no. 22 | Frankfurt. [1911] Offered
for sale by | Joseph Baer & Co. | Hochstr. 6. Frankfort O. M. Germany | 265
pg. On page 259, VIII. PORTRAITS. 3253 Bolivar, Simon, bust. Lith.
Brodtmann, chez Vanrlli Lugano. Fol. M. 6.
Villain.
Simón Bolívar.
[183?]
[France?]
Lithography.
Sheet size 33.2 x 25.1 cm.
Picture 27 x 23 cm.
Frame 60 x 45 cm.
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19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
"Bolivar | Lith of Villain".
This lithograph has a strong French influence, perhaps because it was
produced by the French national Francois Le Villain. It is also possible that
he produced a number of works with the artist Antoine Maurin (1793-1860)
who was also French. Alfredo Boulton in: Portraits of Bolivar. Caracas,
1964, (Second Edition) pg. 123, states that a copy of this lithograph belongs
to the collection of the Bibliothèque de France (Paris B11236). He also,
states that: "It's the first image of transition in which two medals can be
seen. It’s also noted that he uses both Bate and Kepper, because he uses the
military cape, but also preserves the English epaulettes and places the two
medals on the thickly braided front of the cape".
The National Museum of Colombia has an engraving entitled Battle
of Ayacucho, by: Villain. Circa 1830 (Reg. 1872) in its collection. The Museum
House La Quinta Bolívar also houses within its collection a print
(ink/paper). Un dated. titled Triumph of Bolívar, by: Villain (Reg.03-007).
It may be by the same artist who produced the engraving shown here.
14
Rp.f
Simón Bolívar.
Circa 1820.
Germany.
Engraving.
Sheet size 11.1 x 18.2.
Iron 10.3 x 8.9 cm.
Frame 30 x 40 cm.
"Bolivar | Rp. f ".
Published in Album Leaf Göttingen. Germany. Half bust facing right.
Rp. f. can be seen at the bottom of the engraving. It is worth noting that this
print contains physical features captured by both Bate and Kepper, particularly
those in the Villain, such as the hair brushed forward and above all the
shirt front with thick horizontal trimmings, where a medal is placed.
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15
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
Anonymous.
Simón Bolívar.
Circa 1826.
[?]
Engraving.
Sheet size 18.7 x 11.2 cm.
Image 12.5 x 10 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
"Bolívar."
Looking to the left, half bust in uniform with coat. Similar to lithographs
by Kepper and Brodtmann. The John Carter Brown University (USA) has a
copy similar to this engraving in its collection dated circa 1827, no other
other information.
BATE GROUP
WALTON AFFILIATION
M. N. Bate. Simón Bolívar. Engraving. 1819. 0.461 x 0.354. "Simón Bolívar
| Supreme Chief of the Republic and Captain General of the Armies of |
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 15
"Bolivar | Engraved by W. Holl | From an Engraving by M. N. Bate |
Under the Superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge. London Published by Charles Knight, Ludgate Street. Proof".
Published in: The Gallery of Portraits: with Memoirs.
London, 1835, Vol V, 196 pgs.
This engraving is based on one by M. N. Bate, as legend has it: From an
Engraving by M. N. Bate. However, Bate’s engraving was made from an original
drawing owned by William Walton in London, the whereabouts
of which are still unknown today. The Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge published this engraving on a loose canvas (see table below and
the book published by Charles Knight where the present engraving was inserted).
The John Carter Brown University has in its collection two copies
of this engraving, one of them hand-painted, dating erroneously between
the years 1822-1828.
16
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
Holl, W.
Simón Bolívar.
1835.
London.
Stipple engraving.
Sheet size 26.5 x 17.7 cm.
Picture 20 x 11 cm.
Frame 65 x 52 cm.
Venezuela and New Granada. Engraved by N. M. Drawing from an original
Bate in the possession of William Walton Esqr. London Published Feb y.
I, 1819, by Messrs Colnaghi and Companie, Cockspur Street" John Boulton
Foundation Collection.
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BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
17
"Bolivar | Engraved by W. Holl | From an Engraving by M. N. Bate | Under
the Superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
London Published by Charles Knight, Ludgate Street. Proof".
Holl, W.
Simón Bolívar.
1835.
London.
Stipple engraving.
Sheet size 36 x 27 cm.
Image 19 x 10.5 cm.
Frame
"Bolivar | Weber, Nrbg. Sc | Zwickau, b. D. Gebr. Schumann".
Octagonal engraving, by Weber in Nuremberg.
Copies are hand-painted in watercolour.
Weber.
Simón Bolívar.
Circa 1820.
Nuremberg.
Engraving.
Sheet size 26.5 x 21.5 cm.
Iron 17.4 x 12.3 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 17
"Simón Bolívar | Sepulchre in Caracas | died on December 17, 1830."
The John Boulton Foundation has a copy of this print in its collection with
the following description: "The portrait of Bolívar, clearly inspired by Bate,
is inside a medallion. At the bottom, in a smaller medallion, the Tenerani
monument located in the National Pantheon can be seen..." (Collection...
p. 20). The Pantheon was created by a decree issued on the 27th of March,
18
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
Anonymous.
Simón Bolívar.
Sepulchre in Caracas.
[188?]
[?]
Engraving strong water
Sheet size 31.4 x 23 cm.
Image 22.5 x 19 cm.
Frame 60 x 45 cm.
[Illegible]
Simón Bolívar.
1838.
[France]
Lithography.
Sheet size 28.5 x 18.5 cm.
Picture 12 x 8 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Published in: Le Magasin Universel - No. 46 - Central Office,
Quai des Grands Augustins, 20. August 1838. 8 pgs. [Pages 361 to 368]
Contains a biography of Simon Bolivar by Alfred Mauri, with the engraving
of Bolivar showing a strong Bate influence, the engraver only changed the
position of the bust to the right.
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BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
19
1874 by President Antonio Guzmán Blanco. The Church of the Holy Trinity
in Caracas was transformed into the National Pantheon, following the transfer
of the remains of Simón Bolívar from Santa Marta to Venezuela to be
placed temporarily in the church in 1842. The remodelling of the pantheon
was carried out by the engineers Churión Julián, Juan Hurtado Manrique,
Tomás Soriano and Roberto Garcia, and was inaugurated on the 28th October
1875. However, the building was consecrated on the feast day of Saint
Simon a year later on the 28th of October 1876, when the remains of the
Liberator were moved from the Cathedral of Caracas, along with the statue
of the Liberator sculpted in 1842 by the Italian sculptor Pietro Tenerani.
"SIMON BOLIVAR (1783 - 1830)".
Published in: LES CONTEMPORAINS. No. 130. Paris,
Imp Gérant E. Petithenry, 8, rue Francois the 1 st. April 7, 1895. 16 pgs.
The portrait of Bolívar, which faces towards the right, took its inspiration
directly from Bate and is a reproduction of an engraving by Nargeot, which
was intended to be mounted on a fan. The John Boulton Foundation has both
the loose canvas and the fan it its collection.
Anonymous.
SIMON BOLIVAR
(1783 - 1830).
1895.
Paris.
Lithography.
Sheet size 28.5 x 18.5 cm.
Picture 10 x 14 cm.
Frame 71 x 56 cm.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 19
20
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
Pierre Tardieu.
COLOMBIE.
1826.
Paris.
Copper engraving.
Sheet size 20.3 x 25.2 cm.
Image 18.2 x 23.5 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
COLOMBIE. | A. Eymery, Editeur, 1826. | Des sine par Pierre Tardieu. |
Bibliothèque portative. [Paris] copper plate engraving which has a map
in the centre: COLOMBIE, which is orleado with several figures: Bolivar,
Saut de Tequendama Burgois, Dame des Plaines, Dame de la Cordillera,
Femme, Chimborazo, Femme Flies, Flies, Pretre, Pont de Pandi.
The map was inserted into the work of Guillaume N. Lallement: HISTORIE
| DE | LA COLOMBIE, | Par M. Lallement. | Si l´on nous forcé a la guerre,
je jure que | nos projets embrasseront toute l´ Amerique. | J'en fais ici serment
him. (1820.) | BOLIVAR.| PARIS, | ALEXIS EYMERY, LIBRAYRE,
RUE MAZARINE, NO. 30. | BRUXELLES, | AVRASART, G. GASTEBOIS
et Cie. 1826. 320 pgs.
The engraving of Bolivar, though not very attractive, takes its inspiration
from Bate. As described by Peru de La Croix, in the Journal of Bucaramanga,
the book of Lallement, regarding the history of Colombia written
by Joseph M. Restrepo, "it is nonsense that Mr Lallement has published
under the title of History of the Republic of Colombia. What falsehood and
what a lack of accurate details! What erroneous judgement and critique,
what trivial and despicable politics! I have seen many bad books, but none
worse than that of Mr. Lallement; not, however, with respect to its style
which was concise and correct".
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BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
21
Niles, John Milton (1787-1856) A | VIEW | OF | SOUTH AMERICA |
AND | MEXICO, COMPRISING, | THEIR HISTORY, THE POLITICAL
CONDITION, GEOGRAPHY, AGRICULTURE, | COMMERCE, & C.
OF THE REPUBLICS OF MEXICO, GUATEMALA, CO-| COLUMBIA,
PERU, THE UNITED PROVINCES OF SOUTH AMERICA AND |
CHILI WITH A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE REVOLUTION,
IN EACH OF THESE | INDEPENDENT STATES. | BY CITIZEN IN
THE UNITED STATES. | TWO VOLUMES IN ONE. | NEW-YORK. |
PUBLISHED BY H. HUNTINGTON, Jr. | 1825. 2 vols. 1. 204 pgs. + 239
pgs. In the edition of 1826 (see examples given in the Gil de Castro group.)
First published anonymously by "a United States citizen". However, a 1839
edition titled "History of South America and Mexico" cites John M. Niles
as the author. Niles was a journalist and a U.S. senator from Connecticut.
He was Postmaster General in Van Buren. This work is one of the first Latin
American studies from the perspective of a resident of the United States.
The frontispiece on the cover contains an engraving similar to one belonging
to the collection of the John Boulton Foundation, which presents the peculiarity
of a fly on the Liberator’s upper lip. This engraving is clearly of
French origin. See the 1826 edition which contains an engraving that takes
its inspiration from Gil de Castro´s.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 21
Mollien, Gaspard-Théodore, comte de (1796-1872) RESA | I | Columbia |
aren 1822 och 1823, | f | G Mollie. | I Trenne Afdelningar. |
I. Resa i Columbia | II.Columbiens Republiken Stats-och History |
författning. | III. Geografiska-Statistik af Landet Beskrifning. |
STOCKHOLM, | Tryckt i ECKSTEINSKA Tryckeriet, 1826. | Bibliothek |
för | de nyasta Resbeskrinfningar. | ANDREA Bandet. |
Mollliens Resa i Columbian. + VI pp. 296 pgs.
This book contains an engraving of Bolivar that clearly borrows from Bate.
The first edition of this work dates from 1824 in France (reissued in 1825).
It was translated into English (1824), German (1825), Dutch (1825), Swedish
(1826), Italian (1830 and 1831) and the Spanish language had to wait
until 1944: TRIP TO THE REPUBLIC OF COLOMBIA in 1823. Bogotá,
Publications of the Ministry of Education of Colombia. Colombian Public
Library. National Printing. We have revised the version digitised by the Virtual
Library of the Bank of the Republic of Colombia, 2005. Commemorative
Edition of the Fifth Anniversary of the Discovery of America. Foreword
by Carlos José Reyes.
22
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 22
Knight Charles [published] "Bolívar | Engraved by W. Holl |
From an Engraving by M.N. Bate | Under the Superintendence
of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. London Published
by Charles Knight, Ludgate Street. Proof". Published in: The Gallery
of Portraits: with Memoirs. London, 1835, Vol V, 196 pgs.
It contains 24 prints with their biographies, including Bolivar.
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
23
GROUP GIL DE CASTRO
José Gil de Castro. Simón Bolívar. Oil on canvas. 1825. 1.87 x 1.33.
"In Lima by Gil de Castro". Federal Palace in Caracas Collection.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 23
"Bolivar | Dictator Von Columbia | South America's Der Befreier |
Lopez in Lima Gottschick sculp. | Druck v. Vam Verlag
Institut zu Hildburghausen Bibliographischen Zeilgenossen No. 8”
Portrait of Bolivar on the right, half bust in uniform. This engraving is identical
to that published in the Yearbook of recent history... Menzel, Wolfgang. (See
the book above, as well as the engraving in the frontispiece of the book by
Hauschild and Niles). As far as we investigated we have found no artist named
Lopez located in Lima who painted the Liberator. Gottschick used a drawing
by Lopez, which undoubtedly took the physical characteristics captured by
José Gil de Castro, in"gust of wind." See the following engraving.
"BOLIVAR | Ms. Conv. Lex. N ° 250 | Lopez in Lima. |
Gottschick sc. | Last. Excudt Bibl".
Right half bust in uniform.
24
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
Gottschick.
Simón Bolívar.
Circa 1835.
[Germany]
Engraving.
Sheet size 26.4 x 18.5 cm.
Iron 16 x 11.5 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Gottschick.
Simón Bolívar.
Circa 1850.
[Germany]
Steel engraving.
Sheet size 21.1 x 14.3 cm.
Picture 11 x 16 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 24
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
25
Menzel, Wolfgang. Nyasta HISTORIENS | ARSBOCKER |
Bearbetade af | Wolfgang Menzel | FORST ARGANGEN | Aret 1829. |
UPSALA, | Palmblad & C., | 1834. Vol I.Vol II. Vol I. 180 pgs.
Vol II. 205 pgs. + III pg. In the second volume the book contains articles
on Colombia (between pages 143-146). And on pages 143-144,
is the engraving: "Bolívar | Dictator Von Columbia | South America's
Der Befreier | Lopez in Lima Gottschick sculp. |
Druck v. Bibliographischen vam Verlag Institut zu Hildburghausen".
Volume III: nyasta HISTORIENS | ARSBOCKER | Bearbetade af |
Wolfgang Menzel | TREDI OCH FIERDE ARGANGEN | Aren 1831, 32. |
UPSALA, | Palmblad, SEBELL & C., | 1835. Vol III. 328 pp. + 3 pgs. Contains
article on Colombia on pages 212-213. In these pages you will find the engraving:
Bolivar | Dictator Von Columbia | South America's Der Befreier |
Lopez in Lima Gottschick sculp. | Druck v. Bibliographischen vam
Verlag Institut zu Hildburghausen.
Recent history yearbooks. This is a contemporary account of all those involved
in war and politics in several biographies and other events of interest such as
travel and expeditions, volcanic eruptions, floods, etc. Historical years 1829,
1830, 1831 and 1832 (in two volumes), translated from Swedish for the
German peoples giving an account of everything in politics and war, exploration
and travel, volcanic eruptions and so on. With engravings of portraits and
biographies of the leading figures in politics and literature.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 25
Hauschild, Innozenz Ernst (1808-1866). "Bolivar | und | San Martín, |
oder | der Befreiungskampf | auf der südamerikanischen | Halbinsel
in den Jahren 1808-1826. | Für die deutsche Jugend bearbeitet. | Von |
Dr. Ernst I. Hauschild, | ordentlichem lehrer und an der ersten
burgerschule auterordentlichem | Ricoaischule an der lehrer zu Leipzig. |
Rebsat | dem in Etahl gestochenen portrait Bolivars | rart und Ciner.
Leipzig, | B. von Berlage D. Teubner [1844]". VIII + 264 pgs.
Translation: "Bolivar and San Martin and the struggle for the liberation of
the peninsula of South America in the years 1808-1826". Work for the German
youth. Lpz Teubner. A map and a steel engraving of Bolivar. The German
professor Ernst Hauschild Innozenz (1808-1866) was the founder of
"Gesammtgymnasiums moderna", which was built in 1849 in Leipzig. In the
foreword to the book he wrote in 1844. The engraved frontispiece contains"
BOLIVAR | Kunst -u geogr Serzo Anstalt v. CIE in nurnbg.
26
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 26
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
27
Niles, John Milton (1787-1856) A | VIEW | OF | SOUTH AMERICA | AND |
MEXICO, COMPRISING, | THEIR HISTORY, THE POLITICAL CONDITION,
GEOGRAPHY, AGRICULTURE, | COMMERCE, & C. OF THE REPUBLICS
OF MEXICO, GUATEMALA, CO-| COLUMBIA, PERU, THE UNITED PROVINCES
OF SOUTH AMERICA AND | CHILI WITH A COMPLETE HISTORY
OF THE REVOLUTION, IN EACH OF THESE | INDEPENDENT STATES. |
BY CITIZEN IN THE UNITED STATES. | TWO VOLUMES IN ONE. |
NEW-YORK. | PUBLISHED BY H.HUNTINGTON, JUN. |
1826. 2 vols. 1. 204 pgs. + 239 pgs.
The engraving in the frontispiece of the cover of this book replicates some
facial features which are in the portraits by Gil de Castro. It is a portrait
similar but not identical to an oil on brass work dated circa 1823 by an
anonymous artist which belongs to the Bolivarian Society of Ecuador and
Quito, and another which belongs to the Casa Natal del Libertador in Caracas.
There are other three works, the same as the two previously mentioned,
which are owned privately in Lima. (Boulton. op cip. pg. 123-124). Boulton
characterises this engraving as "poorly made" referring to that which appears
in the edition of 1827 (ibid. pg. 120).
GROUP WITH NO AFFILIATION
Allegorical Themes
Steel engraving published between pages 36 and 37 of the book OLMEDO,
José Joaquín (Ecuador: 1780-1843) La Victoria de Junín. Canto a Bolívar.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 27
28
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
Michelet.
"Allégoree representant
les provinces délivrées que
couronnent Bolivar".
1895.
Paris.
Lithography.
Sheet size 28.5 X 18.5 cm.
Picture 9 x 9 cm.
Frame 71 x 56 cm.
Feart (Drew]
"A Simon Bolivar
Liberateur.-
frappee Medaille in 1846 -
Dessin de Feart".
1865.
Paris.
Steel engraving.
Sheet size 28.5 x 18.5 x 12 cm
Figure 6. 71 x 56 cm.
Engraved reproduction by P. Tranquille "Allégoree représentant les provinces
délivrées | que couronnent Bolivar". Bust of Bolivar, surrounded by three
stylised indigenous figures and two celestial figures with bay leaves and a
trumpet. Written on Bolivar’s bust are the words: "Viva Bolivar. Liberator
of his country". "Allegory issued by representatives of the provinces that
crown Bolívar". This is a reproduction of the steel engraving published on
pages 36 and 37 of the book by José Joaquín Olmedo (Ecuador: 1780-1843).
"La Victoria de Junín. Canto a Bolívar". Paris, Paul Renouard printing press,
Gerencière street, nº 5. F.S.G., 1826. 72 pgs. There is an English edition of
this book by the M.Calero Spanish Press. 17, Frederick Place, Goswell
Road. London, England. 1826. 80 pgs. (This edition is very different from
the French).
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 28
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
29
Demarchi.
Simone Bolivar.
Circa 1820.
[Italy]
Etching.
Sheet size 29 x 22.1 cm.
Iron 22 x 15.5 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Published in: LE MAGASIN PICTURESQUE. [Edouard Charton]
- Livraison n° 017 - L'atelier de Daniel Chodowiecki. Paris.
April 1865. pgs.129-136.
"To the Liberator Simón Bolívar. Medal made in 1846. Drawing by Feart."
Biography of Simon Bolivar with reproduction of the front and back side of
the commemorative medal of THE INAUGURATION OF THE STATUE OF
SIMON BOLIVAR, EN LA PLAZA MAYOR DE BOGOTA. On July 20,
1846, in the morning hours, as President of the New Granada Mr. General.
Don Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera, opened this statue and from that moment
is the Plaza Bolivar in the city. "Front: Trustful reproduction of the Liberator
statue by Tenerani with the following inscriptions: SIMONI BOLIVAR
LIBERATORI AMICITIAE MONUMENTUM, TENERANI INV, F. VOIGT
FECIT. At the bottom is an inscription that reads: TO THE LIBERATOR.
Reverse: Reproduction of one of the bas-reliefs, also made by Tenerani, that
adorns the upper pedestal of the statue, representing the Liberator giving freedom
to slaves, with the following caption: SERVITUTIS ABROGATIO E
BOGOTANOS SIM. BOLIVAR MONUMENT, MDCCCXXXXVI. Metal:
gold, silver, bronze. Shape: circular. Diameter: 48.5 m.m. Thickness: 4.5
m.m. Edge: Plain. Weight: the silver and bronze: 58 gr,
"Simon Bolivar | Demarchi dis. | T. T. inc".
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 29
The John Boulton Foundation has a copy of this engraving and describes it
as: A character with a feathered hat in uniform, appears seated, leaning on
the handle of his sword. In the middle ground, there is a horse, of which
only the head is visible, and a tomb. In the background, there are soldiers
and a flag. Engraving of Italian origin. The character who is supposed to be
Simon Bolivar, bears no resemblance to him. It is an imaginative rendering.
"It is accompanied by a biography in Italian and presumably, because only
the date of birth is shown, it was published before his death": Simón Bolívar
| Nato to Caracas nel 1785. (ibid. pg. 22).
"Bolivar Triumpheinzug in Caracas" No. 93. Lithograph by "F.W. Goedsche
and Steinmetz". In: GÜNTELBERG, Carl Frederik. "History of the Ordinary
World in Images, Photo Gallery, or the world’s history, from the earliest
times to the year 1832". C. Steens Publishing. Copenhagen, 1837. There is
also a note on the events of independence and there are hand-painted copies.
30
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
F.W. Goedsche and Steinmetz.
Bolivar’s triumphal entrance
to Caracas.
1837.
Copenhagen.
Lithography.
Sheet size 21.6 x 13 cm.
Picture 17.5 x 10.1 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Miller.
Simón Bolívar. Reiterstatue
für Lima, Adam von modelliert
Tadolini in Rom.
Circa 1859.
[Germany]
Wood engraving.
Sheet size 22.6 x 17.3 cm.
Image 20 x 16.5 cm.
Frame 45 x 32 cm.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 30
"Simon Bolivar, Reiterstatue für Lima, Adam von modelliert Tadolini
in Rom, von gegosten in Erz v. SERD Miller in Munchen".
Equestrian statue from Lima, sculpted by Adam Tadolini in Rome. The first
statue dedicated to the Liberator was erected in Lima in 1859. The statue
erected in the Plaza Bolivar in Caracas was unveiled on November 7, 1874
during the government of Antonio Guzmán Blanco, using the same plaster
cast made by Adam Tadolini in Italy and with the consent of the Peruvian
authorities.
"CARACAS. | Monument to the memory of Bolívar (in the Cathedral.) | J.
Brison | Kemple". 1875. In the work of Eusebio Martinez de Velasco, the
Spanish and American Illustration, Madrid, 1875, year XIX, number XVI,
pgs. 267 and 280) the monument describes as follow: "On a stand rests a
plinth, and on this rests a shrine housing the statue of Bolivar, either side
there are two life-size statues: one representing Justice, holding a scroll that
reads the words: Diligite justitiam judicatis qui terram, and its feet an angel
with a pair of scales in its right hand. The other statue on the left is holding
a plate with both hands, the border of which reads, Bono Publico, and is in
the act of emptying a number of coins into it, in consecration of the good
that Bolivar did. [...] The statue of the general [...] shows the right hand on
his chest in testimony to the purity of his conscience and a laurel wreath on
his left, a reward for his virtue. A bas-relief of three figures is carved on the
plinth, which are the three republics that he founded: Colombia (including
Venezuela), Ecuador and Peru (including Bolivia); treading on a yoke and
are directed toward a laurel tree, leaving behind a burr plant. In the centre
of the stand is this laconic entry: Simonis Bolivar | Cineres | grata patria
atque memor | condit hic et honorat | Anno MDCCCLII. This monument,
[...] is carved from fine Carrara marble [...] by renowned Italian artist Mr.
Tenerani".
BOLIVAR AT BOLIVAR HALL
31
J. Brison.
CARACAS. | Monument to the
memory of Bolívar
(in the Cathedral).
1875.
[Caracas]
Engraving.
Sheet size 17.2 x 10.8 cm.
Picture 11 x 4.9 cm.
Frame 71 x 56 cm.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 31
32
19TH CENTURY ENGRAVINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS
J. Brison.
"CARACAS | Statue of Bolivar
in Caracas's main square".
1875.
[Caracas]
Engraving.
Sheet size 17.2 x 10.8 cm. Image
11.5 x 6.8 cm.
Frame 71 x 56 cm.
García.
'FEDERAL DISTRICT |
Plaza Bolivar in Caracas."
1875.
[Caracas]
Engraving.
Sheet size 11 x 17.5 cm.
Image 7.5 x 9.7 cm.
Frame 71 x 56 cm.
J. Brison.
"CARACAS | The Pantheon".
1875.
[Caracas]
Engraving.
Sheet size 17.2 x 10.8 cm.
Image 11.5 x 6.8 cm.
Frame 71 x 56 cm.
"CARACAS | The Pantheon. Kempler | J. Brison". 1875.
'FEDERAL DISTRICT | Plaza Bolivar in Caracas. | GARCIA". 1877.
Bolivar hall:Maquetación 1 03/07/11 10:33 p.m. Página 32

2 comentarios:

  1. COLECCIÓN INIGUALABLE, PATRIOTICAMENTE HERMOSA.
    FELICITACIONES DON JUAN JOSÉ.

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  2. Gracias Don Felipe Duran... esta a la orden y estamos atento a sus sabios e interesantes comentarios... Saludos desde la Patria de Bolivar.

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